Sunday, May 24, 2020

William Carlos Williams s The Twentieth Century - 833 Words

The early twentieth century in the United States was a time of rapid change combined with rapid loss. As new technologies designed to improve everyday living became available to people across the nation, a new culture was rising in America: a culture that both afforded comfort and thrived on capitalism. There were many critics of this new America, including poets Ezra Pound and William Carlos Williams. The aforementioned poets reflected on a fast changing America through exploitation. As an American, Poet William Carlos Williams believed that the twentieth century culture in America was at a decline. With modern inventions and the growth of a capitalist America, suburbanites and rural Americans were suffering from the urbanization and industrialization of America. William Carlos Williams lived in the suburbs and worked as a family physician, where he observed much of his suburban America (. Through his observations, on people he could see a generalization of what was changing throug hout the twentieth century and its effects on people like himself. His poetry appreciated America for what it was while critiquing what he saw it becoming, a â€Å"degeneration of rural communities† which meant a decline of American culture. (Monacell, 125). For example, Williams’ poem â€Å"To Elsie† demonstrates a critique on American culture that has been tainted by modernity. Elsie, as in the â€Å"To Elsie†, was a nursemaid who worked for Williams’ family. Williams â€Å"finds in Elsie an analogue forShow MoreRelatedAmerican Literature in the Period between 1914-1945887 Words   |  4 Pagespolitically and culturally emerging multicultural perspectives. The United States had many changes from World War I and II, the stock market crashing in the 1920’s, therefore leading to economic depression. This became an inspiration to many of the literary writers. Many writers such as Robert Frost Susan Glaspell and William Carlos Williams began to celebrate the modern developments while many others lamented on them, or they began to believe that many old literary forms would not be able to work forRead MoreHow Poetry Makes Nothing Happen1763 Words   |  8 Pagesthink this accurately describes the political and social place of poetry in the twentieth century and/or the twenty first century? Explain why you agree or disagree in the case of your chosen poet, justifying your answer with close reference to your poet’s work and its reception and interpretation. This essay examines the effects that poetry has on society, both socially and politically. Poetry has been around for centuries, and it is a common misconception that it serves no purpose. One critic in particularRead MoreJohn Coltrane1566 Words   |  7 PagesIntro to Music Masterworks Final Paper Jazz music was originally developed by African Americans during the start of the twentieth century. Throughout the semester we have studied the timeline of musical periods including the Romantic and Classical eras of music. Becoming internationally popular in the 1920s, jazz music has been typically described as Americas Classical Music. The musical periods we have discussed in this course have influenced and show a strong relation to jazz musicRead MoreBook Report on The New Ethnic Mob by William Kleinknecht Essay1470 Words   |  6 PagesBook Report on The New Ethnic Mob by William Kleinknecht The New Ethic Mob by William Kleinknecht explores how the current criminals involved in organized crime are no longer just the Italians. He could be Cuban, Chinese, Russian, African-American, Haitian, or Jamaican. These are the new breed of more sophisticated and more brutal organized criminals. In the preface of the book Kleinknecht states not to mistake this work for a case against immigration in the UnitedRead MoreThe Characteristics of Hemingways Works2503 Words   |  11 Pagesliterature. He is regarded as one of the most influential writers of the twentieth century. Hemingway is famous for his distinct writing style and his â€Å"Code Hero.† In addition, his many great works are based on his experiences of war. Hemingway’s writing style is arguably the most distinctive characteristic of his works. The minimalist style is the core of Hemingway’s writing style. His writing style contrasts with William Faulkner’s meticulous writing style. Margaret Anne OConnor and John AlbertiRead MoreAlvin Ailey s Influence On The Landscape Of Modern Dance1453 Words   |  6 PagesAlvin Ailey was an accomplished dancer and choreographer whose African-American heritage influenced his works in the 20th century. His successful dance career has gained international recognition and acclaim thus rendering a significant legacy. Ailey’s background as a dancer and choreographer had many strong influences from social, cultural, economic and political aspects during his early life. His African-American heritage has greatly influenced his works. Alvin was the founder of the Alvin AileyRead More America and Haiti Essay3384 Words   |  14 PagesAmerica and Haiti The United States interest in Haiti, as mentioned above, began a huge increase in the first decade of the twentieth century. The extent of U. S. economic penetration was not as great as that of France and Germany, but by 1910 it controlled sixty percent of Haiti’s import industry. Unfortunately, the Haitian banking system did not follow this path and was, at this time, perilously close to domination by European interests. (Langley, 1982, 70) In an effort to gain more controlRead MoreThe Development Of Downtown San Diego1829 Words   |  8 Pagesin decades drawing in new residents† (Greenblatt). In the mid twentieth century, Americans grew a love and desire for life outside of a cramped city. The big houses, quiet streets, and cheap land attract many residents to live in the suburbs. The American fascination and increased availability of cars also added to the sprawl epidemic in America as people can live outside of the city center and easily commute to work. In the late 70’s many Americans began to realize the importance of city centersRead MoreEssay on Slavery in Latin America4587 Words   |  19 Pagesadministration of Gabriel Gonzà ¡lez Videla, who was elected president in 1946. He ruled with the support of the Communists until 1948, when he gained the support of the Liberal party and outlawed the Communists. His efforts, as well as those of his successors, Carlos Ibà ¡Ãƒ ±ez del Campo (1952-58) and Jorge Alessandri (1958-64), were hampered by chronic inflation and repeated labor crises. In the 1964 presidential election (in which Eduardo Frei Montalva was elected) and in the 1965 congressional elections, theRead MoreEssay on Pocahontas2785 Words   |  12 Pages Native Americans who were also portrayed in the movie. Kokoum, Pocahontas, and Powhatan are the few Indians named in the film, and they have also been recorded as Native Americans in history. â€Å"All we know of Kokoum is that he was, in colonist William Strachey’s words, a ‘pryvate captaine† to whom Pocahontas was married to when she was kidnapped by the English in 1613† (d’Entremont 1303). However, in the movie, even though Kokoum is a character, he is not married to Pocahontas; they are however

Wednesday, May 13, 2020

Capitalism Benefits And Drawbacks Essay - 823 Words

Capitalism: Benefits and Drawbacks Every year around christmas, a plethora of angry people proclaim the sins of capitalism. These people claim that America’s fixation on material goods and other key elements of capitalism completely destroy the true meaning of what is supposed to be a holy holiday. They cite the people suffering in other countries who make America’s products, as well as many other credible arguments against the morality of a free-trade market. What these people refuse to acknowledge are the benefits that capitalism has brought to this country as well as much of the outside world. This economic philosophy of free enterprise has provided the world with cheaper products, greater freedom, and many other great boons of prosperity. It is important to realize that even though people highlight the negativities of capitalism, it has done great things for this world. As an economic and political philosophy, competitive capitalism has great benefits as well as hor rible ramifications on the people who participate in this system. Capitalism is very beneficial to many populations in America, both directly and indirectly. An indirect benefit of free market nature of capitalism is that it attracts many diverse populations to capitalistic countries, causing many people to benefit from increased social mobility and civil freedoms. In â€Å"Corporate Capitalism and the Common Good† published in the Journal for Religious Ethics published on March 1, 2002, Thomas Ogletree explainsShow MoreRelatedBenefits And Drawbacks Of American Capitalism996 Words   |  4 PagesIn this social constructed economic system there are benefits and drawbacks to American Capitalism. Capitalism is the idea of a free market based economy wherein that economy is organized by individual people and companies rather than the government. 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There exist many different types of democracyRead MoreA Reflection Paper On Central Concepts876 Words   |  4 Pagesconnects me to over millions of people around the globe making us part of globalization, which is â€Å"The expansion and intensification of social relations and consciousness across world-time and world-space† (Steger 15). Apple customers are exposed to capitalism, economics, and sustainability through their purchase of Apple products, most commonly iPhones, which ties them into globalization. â€Å"Globalization is a process of interaction and integration among the people, companies, and governments of differentRead MoreThe Four Fundamental Business Resources916 Words   |  4 Pagesthe aspect that keeps all aspects of the industry running through a steady stream of allocates money to the different branches. 2) Capitalism, Socialism, and Communism are all products of a society’s effort to attempt to perpetuate an ideology that aims to better the lives of those who fall in their category. However, that is where their similarities end. Capitalism, the system in which the individual can decide his use of the currency, property or industry owned by him, is radically different fromRead MoreSoma MÄ °ne Disaster645 Words   |  3 Pagesmine disaster has happened due to economic and political goals in favor of the government and the companies and ignorance of human rights. To begin with, economic aims caused to Soma mine disaster due to capitalism, allowing illegal workers and extra coal policy. Initially, as long as capitalism is applied, the disastrous race between companies, including Soma Holding keeps existing. For example, in order to beat each other, firms regard fraud and cruel attitudes as a useful policy; hence, the race

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Performance Appraisal System Free Essays

â€Å"A STUDY ON PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL SYSTEM† DONE FOR â€Å"BAJAJ FINSERV LIMITED† PROJECT REPORT Submitted in the partial fulfillment for the award of MASTER OF BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Submitted By SOFIYA TARRANNUM (Roll No- 2128-11-672-018) Under the guidance of ASHARA ANJUM HYDERABAD PRESIDENCY P. G. COLLEGE (Affiliated to Osmania University Hyderabad, and approved by AICTE. We will write a custom essay sample on Performance Appraisal System or any similar topic only for you Order Now DECLARATION I here by declare that the project work entitled â€Å"A STUDY ON PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL SYSTEM†, submitted by me under the supervision of, ASHARA ANJUM, Department of MBA, HYDERABAD PRESIDENCY P. G COLLEGE. HYDERABAD submitted for the requirement for the award of the Master of Business Administration of OSMANIA UNIVERSITY and it is entirely original and has not been submitted earlier by any one for any Degree or Diploma. PLACE: HYDERABAD DATE: (SOFIYA TARRANNUM) ROLL NO : 2128-11-672-018 CERTIFICATE This is certify that the project work entitled â€Å"A STUDY ON PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL SYSTEM† is bonafide work done and submitted by SOFIYA TARRANNUM, in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the award of the degree of â€Å"MASTER OF BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION† in â€Å"HYDERABAD PRESIDENCY P. G COLLEGE† (Affiliated to Osmania University, Hyderabad and approved by AICTE, during the year 2012-2013. ASHARA ANJUM ARSHAD UR REHMAN Project Guid Head of Department Hyderabad Presidency P. G College Hyderabad Presidency P. G College Hyderabad-500089. Hyderabad -500089. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT First of all, I think almighty god who has blessed me all through my life. I wish to express my sincere indebtedness to our principal, prof. ARSHAD UR RAHMAN. HYDERABAD PRESIDENCY COLLEGE. My profound thanks and deep sense of gratitude of , Head of the Department, HPC for his valuable support and encouragement . I express my sincere thanks to my guide, ASHARA ANJUM, associate professor for their valuable guidance and suggestions and being instrumental in having shape to my project work. I would like to thank entire faculty members in Hyderabad Presidency p. g college. for their support and inspiration for successful completion of the project they were the most caring and the best critics during the course of y project and enabled me to be creative and multi-dimensional in my approach. I will remain always debited to them. Last but not the least, I wish to acknowledge with gratitude for the support and encouragement extended by my family members for the successful completion of the project. (SOFIYA TARRANNUM) EXECUTIVE SYNOPSIS HYDERABAD PRESIDENCY P. G COLLEGE A STUDY ON PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL DONE FOR BAJAJ FINSERV LIMITE D. NAME: SOFIYA TARRANNUM UNDER THE GUIDENCE OF ROLL NO -2128-11-672-018 ASHARA ANJUM TABLE OF CONTENT TOPICSPAGE NO. CHAPTER-1 †¢INTRODUCTION 9-16 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY17-19 CHAPTER-2 †¢LITERATURE REVIEW14-25 CHAPTER-3 †¢THE COMPANY/ ORGANIZATION/ SYSTEM26-43 CHAPTER-4 DATA ANALYSIS44-68 CHAPTER-5 FINDINGS,SUGGESTION CONCLUSION 69-74 BIBLIOGRAPHY76 QUESTIONARE 77 LIST OF TABLES AND GRAPH Sl No. FiguresPage No 1. Project Goals are different from functional Goal45 2. Position on the basis of performance46 3. Scope of using the innovating skills in making Decesion47 4. Percentage of Target matching with Goal48 5. Discuss personal problem with superior49 6. Superior contribute to see their goal50 7. Methods of appraisal51 8. Interpersonal team Relationship 52 9. Employee appreciation53 10. Feedback given by appraiser54 11. Employee opinion about frequency of appraisal system55 12. Opinion on performance linked performance policy56 13. Training needs57 14. Employee opinion on appraisal system58 15. Appraisal System59 16. Rating system60 17. Planning61 18. Value of employee in the organization62 19. Improvement in Job performance63 20. Self appraisal64 21. Effectiveness of Appraisal65 22. Employee Satisfiction66 LIST OF CHARTS Sl No. FiguresPage No 1. Process Flow Chart of Appraisal24 2. Service at Bajaj Finserv Limited25 3. Performance Rating against individual item 27 4. Summary detail of portfolio32 5. Organization Structure of Bajaj Finserv35 6. Appraisal by first Assessor37 7. Appraisal by second Assessor38 CHAPTER-1 INTRODUCTION RESEARCH METODOLOGY RESEARCH METHODOLOGY: Research design : Descriptive in nature Research instrument : A well structured questionnaire Population size : 275 Sample size : 100 Sampling unit : Technical Sample procedure : convenience sampling Sources of data : Primary Secondary data Primary data : Primary data is collected from the respondents through Questionnaire interacting with the associates. Secondary data : Secondary data is collected from the various text books On performance appraisal, Company reports, company Broachers and company websites. ww. bajajfinserv. com Statistical tool : weighted average method and simple percentage method. This chapter deals with the Title of the study, the Need of the study i. e. for what purpose the study is actually carried out, the Scope of the study, the Objectives of the study, the Various sources of data collection, the Study instruments used for conducting survey like Questionnaire, Interview etc, the way the data is analyzed, the Presentation of the study and finally the limitation involved in the study. TITLE OF THE STUDY: The Title of the study is â€Å"STUDY ON PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL SYSTEM† At â€Å"BAJAJ FINSERV LIMITED †, Hyderabad, and Andhra Pradesh. NEED FOR THE STUDY: ?Performance appraisal has been considered as a most significant and dispensable tool for an organization. It is highly useful in making decisions regarding various personal aspects. Performance appraisal developing criteria for promotion and career development. ?It provide a synthetic feed back to the employees regarding there performance with in a limited period of time. It prevent grievances and increases the analytical abilities of the supervisors The overall objectives of performance appraisal is to improve the efficiency of an enterprise by attempting to mobilize the best possible effort from individuals employed SCOPE OF THE STUDY: The scope of the study has been confined to the associates of Bajaj Finserv limited. It includes associates of various departments with different cadres only top-level executives are excluded from the study. OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY: ?To study the existing performance appraisal system at B F L. ?To evaluate the effectiveness of appraisal system. To offer suggestion for improvement in performance appraisal system. RESEARCH DESIGN: Descriptive study â€Å"A research design is the arrangement of conditions for collection and analysis of data in manner that aims to combine relevance to the research purpose with economy in procedure†. RESEARCH INSTRUMENT: Making researches have a choice of two main research instrumen ts in collecting primary data. They are questionnaire and mechanical devices. Hear the research instrument used in a structure questionnaire, which is carefully and well designed. It includes both open and close ended questions. The questionnaire is personally administered to the respondents and clarify the doubts if any , and the responses were solicited. SAMPLING DESIGN: POPULATION: In statistical uses the term population is any finite or infinite collection of individuals. The populations of this study are associates of the technical department of the company. Population size: Population size constitutes 275 associates Sample size: A sample size is 100 Sample unit: A sample unit is service department. SOURCES OF DATA COLLECTION Data for the present study is collected through two sources i. e. through primary data and secondary data. Primary Data: The primary data is collected through Questionnaires and interacting with the associates. Secondary Data: For the study on performance Appraisal System the secondary Sources used are various Textbooks on Performance Appraisal, company reports, company policies, brochures and various websites. STUDY INSTRUMENTS: The questionnaire is framed to find out the effectiveness of Performance Appraisal of Bajaj Finserv Limited. It contains 24 questions. It is distributed into four sections. †¢Setting Of Goals †¢Role Of Superior †¢Feedback and Evaluation †¢Organizational Effectiveness ANALYSIS OF DATA: The collected data is tabulated and then analyzed by simple percentage, weighted average and represented by different types of graphs and charts. The analysis of data is on the basis of the questionnaire collected from the associates. CHAPTER-2 LITERATURE REVIEW CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK DEFINITION OF PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL To define the concept of performance appraisal the management gurus have taken certain common parameters and on the basis of that they have defined the term. The terminology of the definitions may differ but the overall meaning of the definition remains same. Some of the leading definitions are given below ?Performance appraisal is a systematic review of a person’s work and achievements over a recent period, usually leading to plans for the future. ?In, its most basic form, performance appraisal includes documenting achieve results (Hopefully, by also including use of examples to clarify documentation) and indicating if standards were met or not. ?The appraisal usually includes some form of development plan to address insufficient performance. ?The evaluation of an individual’s work performance in order to arrive at objective personnel decisions. PURPOSE OF TRADITIONAL PERFORMANCE APPRAISALS Performance appraisal for evaluation using a traditional approach has served the following purposes: ?Promotion, separation, and transfer decisions. ?Feedback to the employee regarding how to organization viewed the employee’s performance. ?Evaluation of relative contributions made by individuals and departments in achieving higher organization goals. ?Criteria for evaluating the effectiveness of selection and placement decisions, including the relevance of the information used in the decisions within the organization. Reward decisions, including merit increases promotions and other rewards. ?Ascertaining and diagnosing, training and development decisions. ?Criteria for evaluating the success of training and development decisions. INSIGHT INTO APPRAISAL THEORY Organizations in their day-to-day activities working handle loads of activities. The employees working in the organizations carry on these activities. Organization activities done by the employees are termed as â€Å"performance† the buzzword that is all time in the heads of the management. â€Å"The success of the organization depends upon the performance of its employees† Earlier organizations did not have any kind of specific methodology to handle the issues relating to measuring of performance because they did not had an understanding that the performance of the employees plays an significant role in the overall functioning and meeting goals and objectives of the organizations. Performance is measured basically on the basis of the goals by an individual, which contribute to the overall organizational goals. The main focus is on meeting the overall goals and objectives of the organization in the specific time span. In doing so the organization must also see that the individual self-development and personal goals are also fulfilled. When the individual is able to synchronize his personal goals with that of the organizational goals then the working of the system will be apt. PREFACE OF THE APPRAISAL SYSTEMS The appraisal is both inevitable and universal. In the absence of carefully structured system of appraisal, people tend to judge the work performance of others ,including subordinates, naturally, informally and arbitrarily. Without a structured appraisal system there is a little chance of ensuring that the judgments made will be lawful, fair, defensible and accurate. The history of performance appraisal is quite brief. Its roots in the early 20th century can be traced to Taylor’s pioneering time and motion studies. But this is not very helpful, for the same may be said about almost everything in the field of modern human resource management. The practice of appraisal is an ancient art. In the scale of things historical , it might well lay claim that appraisal is the world’ second oldest profession. Performance appraisal systems began as simple methods of income justification. That is, appraisal was used to decide whether or not the salary or wage of an individual employee Was justified. Little consideration, if any, was given to the developmental possibilities of appraisal. It was felt that a cut in a pay, or a rise, should provide the only required impetus for an employee to either improve or continue to perform well. Pay rates were important, yes; but they were not only the element that had an impact on employee performance. It was found that other issues, such as morale and self-esteem, could also have a major influence. APPRAISALS IN TODAY’S CORPORATE WORLD The modern system of performance appraisal is defined as a structured formal interaction between a subordinate and supervisor, that usually takes the form of a periodic interview (annual or semi-annual), in which the work performance of the subordinate is examined and discussed, with a view to identifying weaknesses and strengths as well as opportunities for improvements and skill development. In many organizations – but not all – appraisal results are used, either directly or indirectly, to help determine reward outcomes. That is, the appraisal results are used to identify the better performing employees who should get the majority of available merit pay increases, bonuses and promotions. By the same token, appraisal results are used to identify the poorer performers who may require some form of counseling, or in some cases demotion, dismissal or decreases in pay. (Organizations need to be aware of laws in their country that might restrict their capacity to dismiss employees or decrease pay. FLAW EXIST IN TRADITIONAL PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL SYSTEM oWork scheduling plans oBudgeting oHuman Resource planning MOSTLY USED METHODS OF PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL RATING SCALES: The rating scale method offers a high degree of structure for appraisals. Each employee trait or characteristics is rated on the bipolar scale that usually has several points ranging from â€Å"poor † to â€Å"excellent â€Å". The traits assessed on these scales include: ? Cooperation ?Communication ability ?Initiative ?Punctuality ?Technical competence The nature and scope of the traits selected for inclusion is limited only by the imagination of the scale’s designer or by the organization’s need. BEHAVIORAL ANCHORED RATING SCALES The term used to describe a performance rating that focused on specific behaviors or sets as indicators of effective or ineffective performance, rather than on broadly stated adjectives such as â€Å" average, above average, or below average â€Å". GRAPHIC RATING SCALES The term used to define the oldest and the most widely used performance appraisal method. The evaluator are given a graph and asked to rate the employees on each of the characteristics. The number of characteristics varies from one to hundred. The rating can be a matrix of boxes for the evaluator to check off or a bar graph where the evaluator checked off a location relative to evaluators rating. CHECKLIST The term used to define a set of adjectives or descriptive statements. If the rater believed the employee possessed a trait listed, the rater checked the item; if not, the rater left the item blank. The rating score from the checklist equaled the number of checks. WEIGHTED CHECKLIST The term is used to describe an alternative method of performance appraisal where the supervisor or personal specialists familiar with the job being evaluated prepare a large list of descriptive statements about effective and ineffective behavior of jobs. RANKING METHOD The term ranking has been used to describe an alternative method of performance appraisal where the supervisor has been asked to order his or her employees in terms of performance from highest to lowest. CRITICAL INCIDENT METHOD The term is used to define a method of appraisal that made lists of statements very effective and very ineffective behavior for employees. The lists have been combined into categories, which vary with the job. Once these categories are developed and a statement of effective and ineffective behavior has been provided, the evaluator recorded examples of critical behaviors, and the log has been used to evaluate the employees at the end of evaluation period. NARRATIVE OR ESSAY EVALUATION This method requires the evaluator to write a short essay describing each employee’s performance during the raring period. This format emphasizes evaluation of overall performance, based on the strengths and weaknesses of an employee performance. Some companies still use this method exclusively, whereas in others, the method has been combined with the graphic rating scale. MANAGEMENT BY OBJECTIVES The management by objectives performance appraisal method has the supervisor and the employee get together to set objectives in quantifiable terms. The appraisal method has worked to eliminate communication problems by the establishments of regular meetings, emphasizing results, and by being an ongoing process. Cascading of organizational objectives oSetting up of subordinate objectives oReviewing and evaluating the performance oFeedback and rewards oSetting up of new MBO. 360 DEGREE PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL Performance Appraisal by all the parties like supervisors, peers, subordinates, employees themselves, users of service and consultants is called 360 degree Performance Appraisal. The appraiser should be capabl e of determining what is more important and what is less important. He should prepare reports and make judgments without any bias. SELF APPRAISAL If individuals understand the objectives they are expected to achieve and the standards by which they are to be evaluated, they are to a great extent in the best position to appraise their own performance. Also, since employee development means self-development employee who appraises his or her own performance may become highly motivated. MERITS OF AN APPRAISAL SYSTEM Perhaps the most significant benefit of appraisal is that, in the rush and bustle of daily working life, it offers a rare chance for a supervisor and subordinate to have â€Å" time out â€Å" for a one-on-one discussion of important work issues that might not otherwise be addressed. Almost universally, where performance appraisal is conducted properly, both supervisors and subordinates have reported the experience as beneficial and positive. Appraisal offers a valuable opportunity to focus on work activities and goals, to identify and correct the existing problems, and to encourage better future performance. Thus the performance of the whole organization is enhanced. The value of this intense and purposeful interaction between a supervisor and subordinate should not be underestimated. Motivation and Satisfaction Performance appraisal can have a profound effect on levels of employee motivation and satisfaction. It provides employees with recognition as an incentive has been long noted. In fact, there is evidence that human beings will even prefer negative recognition in preference to no recognition at all. Training and Development Performance Appraisal offers an excellent opportunity – perhaps the best that will ever occur – for a supervisor and subordinate to recognize and agree upon individual training and development needs. Recruitment and induction Appraisal data can be used to monitor the success of the organization’s recruitment and induction practices. For example, how well are the employees performing who were hired in the past two years? Appraisal data can also be used to monitor the effectiveness of changes in recruitment strategies. By following the yearly data related to new hires it is possible to assess whether the general quality of work force is improving, staying steady, or declining. Employee Evaluation Though often understated or even denied, evaluation is a legitimate and major objective of performance appraisal. But the need to evaluate is also an ongoing source of tension, since evaluative and developmental priorities appear to frequently clash. Yet at its most basic level, performance appraisal is the process of examining and evaluating the performance of an individual. It is been said by some that appraisal cannot serve the needs of evaluation and development at the same time; it must one or other. EXPECTATIONS FROM MANAGER IN DOING PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL †¢Translate organizational goals into individual job objectives †¢Communicate management expectations regarding employee performance. Provide feedback to the employee about the job performance in light of management’s objectives. †¢Coach the employee on how to achieve job objectives/requirements. †¢Diagnose the employee’s strengths and weaknesses. †¢Determine what kind of development activities might help the employee better utilize his or her skills to improve performance on the current job. CRITERI A OF A SUCCESSFUL PERFORMANCE OBJECTIVE Specific; What specifically is to be achieved? Not just what actions are to be performed, but what results are to be achieved through these actions? Keeping objectives simple ensures they are clear and specific. This also reduces the chance for disputes or confusion come performance appraisal time. Measurable How will you know how well an objective has been achieved? Although it may not be readily apparent, every object can be measured. Some measures can be measured quantitatively; others must be measured qualitatively. Accountable Accountability for performance objectives must be crystal clear and specifically state who is accountable. The more detail the better. A clear definition of what he or she is specifically accountable for will help reduce confusion cum performance appraisal time. Defining accountability will ensure a sense of urgency and purpose on the part of the employee. Realistic For an objective to be meaningful, it must be realistic and reasonable. A well-written performance objective focuses on the goals and objectives required to meet the objective. In highly efficient organizations, performance objectives ultimately link back to the company’s overall strategy and business plan. Objectives should challenge employees towards continuous improvement, but should not be unrealistic or unattainable. Time based An achievable time frame must be set for reaching the objectives. Consider assigning specific target dates not only for the performance objective itself, but also each lesser milestone linking the entire goal. Remember to be specific towards achieving results and guide action in a results oriented ways towards the objective. PROCESS FLOW CHART OF APPRAISAL GENERAL INSTRUCTIONS The performance rating against individual item in the appraisal is to be done on a 1-5 point scale as follows: RATINGEXPLANATION 5OUTSTANDING- Exceeds requirements significantly and consistently in all critical work aspects. Showed tremendous initiative and is very proactive . 5EXCELLENT- Performance at the highest standards. possesses and effectively utilized where needed, the knowledge in areas beyond those required for the discharge of critical responsibilities. Exceed requirements in most critical areas. Plans and executes well 4VERY GOOD- Demonstrates effective skills in most and essential responsibilities. Some skill areas still need improvement in order to excel at the job. 3. 5GOOD- Demonstrates skills in some essential areas. There is scope for improvement in some critical responsibility areas. Shows initiative. ABOVE AVERAGE- Demonstrates skills in some of the essential responsibilities. Performance is adequate for the current review period. Supervision is required to execute tasks in many areas. 2AVERAGE- Demonstrates average skills in most of the essential responsibilities. Meets targets with continuous supervision. Intensive training is required, 1 BELOW AVERAGE- Demonstrates Level of skills that has been unsatisfactory and inadequate for the discharge of the essential responsibilities. Consistently fall short of requirements. High level of supervision is required. Assessments duly completed in all respects, are to be forwarded to HR, in sealed envelopes. CHAPTER-3 The Company/ Organization/ System COMPANY PROFILE AN INTRODUCTION TO BAJAJ FINSERV LIMITED INTRODUCTION  ¬Ã‚ ¬Ã‚ ¬Ã‚ ¬INTRODUCTION: Bajaj FinServ will strive to be one of the top financial services businesses in India focused on delivering superior customer experience through competitive products and class leading services while providing consistent and superior returns to our shareholders and maintaining the high levels of integrity of Bajaj. Company profile: Bajaj Finserv Limited (Bajaj Finserv) is a holding company. Bajaj Finserv is the financial services arm of the Bajaj group. Its financial services businesses include lending, protection, and financial advisory and wealth management. The Company operates in four segments: Insurance, Windmill, Retail Financing and Investments others. It does lending business Under Bajaj Finance Limited (BFL). Its protection business consists of life insurance, under the Bajaj Allianz Life Insurance Company (BALIC), and general insurance, under the Bajaj Allianz General Insurance Company (BAGIC). The Company’s Financial Advisory and Wealth Management business consists of Bajaj Financial Solutions Limited (Bajaj Finsol), which offers financial products and advises clients on financial and wealth management. In addition, as of March 31, 2012, Bajaj Finserv had wind-farm assets, incorporating 138 windmills in Maharashtra with an installed capacity of 65. 2 megawatt. Bajaj Finserv endeavors to become a full fledged financial services company and be the financial partner to the Indian consumer and help him across his financial needs throughout his lifecycle. Bajaj Finserv is a consumer focused company with emphasis on profitable growth and operational efficiency to deliver best results to all its stakeholders. Bajaj Finserv Group companies share common values of Reliability, Innovation and Efficiency and provide customers with high quality products and services. Key focus areas for Bajaj Finserv are Lending, Investment, Protection and Advisory. Bajaj Finserv also has interests in Wind farms with 138 windmills and a total installed capacity of 65. 2 MW BAJAJ FINSERV LIMITED VISION: Bajaj Finserv has a vision to become a full fledged financial services company and be the financial partner to the Indian consumer and help him across his financial needs, whether for finance, for investment management, for protection or for post retirement support, throughout his lifecycle. Bajaj Finserv is a consumer focused company with emphasis on profitable growth and operational efficiency to deliver best results to all its stakeholders. MISSION: â€Å"Bajaj Finserv is a consumer focused company with emphasis on profitable growth and operational efficiency to deliver best results to all its stakeholders. COREVALUES: ?Trust ?Integrity ?Commitment ?Respect for people ?Innovation OBJECTIVE: â€Å"To create value and delight for our stake holders† QUALITY POLICY: â€Å"To excel in providing Financial services that meets or Exceeds customer requirements through continual improvements† NATURE OF ACTIVITY ?Our Products Services: ?Loans Against Property ? Personal Loans ? Business Loans ? Home Loans ? Infrastructure Equipment Finance ? Loans Against Securities ? Consumer Durable Loans As a value-added service we also provide insurance services like ‘Group Term Policy’ and ‘Group Term Suraksha’ bundled with our products. VARIOUS DEPARTMENTS ?Operations ?Human resources ?Finance ?Networking and systems ?Quality ?Corporate services ?Collection ?Sales ?Product ?Marketing PEOPLE: considered as â€Å"Associates† BAJAJ FINSERV believes â€Å"our people are our strength,† this is the very reason why Bajaj term them as â€Å"Associates† rather than employees. The work culture is people oriented, where individual aspirations are matched with organizational Objectives. Our associates exemplify our customer-oriented work style. The employees at BFL are comfortable working across cultures and across contexts; their consistency and dependability lies in their emphasis on creating solutions that are problem-focused, high on quality and quick in terms of time-to-market. Bajaj Group. Its insurance joint ventures with Allianz SE, Germany namely Bajaj Allianz Life Insurance Company Limited and Bajaj Allianz General Insurance Company Limited are engaged in life and general insurance business respectively. Its subsidiary Bajaj Finance Limited is a Non Banking Finance Company engaged in consumer finance, SME finance and commercial lending. Bajaj Financial Solutions Limited, a wholly owned subsidiary of Bajaj Finserv Limited is engaged in wealth advisory business. SERVICES AT BAJAJ FINSERV LIMITED Bajaj Finance Limited We are the most diversifed non-bank in the country, the largest financier of consumer durables in India and one of the most profitable firms in the category. Hereunder are summary details of our portfolio of businesses, with a brief description on each. Consumer FinanceConsumer Durables Finance Lifestyle Finance EMI Card Personal Loans Cross Sell Co-branded Credit Cards Two and three wheeler Finance Salaried Personal Loans SME FinanceMortgage Business Loans Commercial LendingConstruction Equipment Finance Infrastructure Finance Vendor Financing Awards and Accomplishments The recognition that matters the most to us is the one we receive from our customers. That was how it was when we started. That will be even when we have a treasure trove of Industry Recognition and awards Awards: Recently, we won the CIO 100 Innovation award for two of our innovations – countries such as Canada, Sweden, Australia, Singapore, Vietnam, Hungary and India, the CIO 100 Awards is a truly global recognition. It is an acknowledged mark of excellence in enterprise IT. Management Profile Sanjiv Bajaj: Managing Director Kevin D’Sa: CFO and President – Business development Ranjit Gupta: President (Insurance) S. Sreenivasan: President (Finance) V. Rajagopalan: President (Legal) Sonal R Tiwari: Company Secretary OFF SHORE POLICIES PERSONAL BENEFITS ?Leave ?Onsite return leave policy ?Personal leave policy ?Loans for house rental deposit ?Home pc ?Telephone at residence ?Facilities to the associates TRAVEL RELATED ?International travel ?Domestic travel ?Conveyance reimbursement ?Car hire Relocation policy ?Relocation allowance WORK PLACE BASIS ?Working hour ?Dress code ?Identity card ?Business card ?Late/holiday working ?Work ethics ?Shift allowance OTHER POLICIES ?Reward and recognition ?Staff welfare allowance ?Associate referral ?Work ethics ?Higher education BAJAJ FINSERV LIMITED OFFERINGS Organisation Structure Performance Appraisal System at Bajaj Finserv Ltd: PERFORMANCE MAN AGEMENT: APPRAISAL PROCEDURE: PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL FOR ASSOCIATES OF HOD LEVEL: PURPOSE: To appraise the performance of all the associates at HOD level in BAJAJ FINSERV LIMITED PROCEDURE: General: Annual appraisal is done during the month of April, every year for all the confirmed associates who are on the rolls as on 31st December of the previous year. †¢Distribution of Appraisal Forms: for annual appraisal, the HR will distribute the appraisal forms to the CEO for further distribution to the concerned appraisers. †¢Self-Documentation: At the start of the appraisal process, every assessee will fill a self-documentation form and give it to the concerned Appraiser. †¢Appraisal by Assessor: The Assessor will perform the assessment upon receiving the self Appraisal Form from the assessee. The forms to be used for appraisal is as given in the table below: Sl. NoTitle of the formUsed for Appraisal of 1Self Documentation formAll Associates at HOD Level 2Performance Appraisal Form(HOD)All Associates at HOD level †¢Acceptance of Appraisal: The Assessor will discuss the assessment results with the assessee. If the assessee agrees to the assessment, then the assessee and the concerned assessor will sign on the Performance Appraisal Form and the first assessor (CEO) will also give his final authorization. The appraisal form, complete in all respects is received from the CEO. †¢Follow-up of Appraisal: The HOD (HR) will issue the revised salary/ promotion letters to the assesse based on the performance Appraisal form and discussions with the concerned first assessor. HR informs the revised salary/ promotion details of an assessee to finance for processing the same by updating the Associate database. †¢Appraisal Records: the HOD (HR) will maintain the performance appraisal records in the personal file of each associate. PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL FOR ASSOCIATES BELOW HOD LEVEL: PURPOSE: To appraise the performance of all the associates below HOD level in BAJAJ FINSERV LIMITED. PROCEDURE: †¢General: Annual appraisal is done during the month of April, every year for all the confirmed associates who are on the rolls as on 31st December of the previous year. †¢Distribution of Appraisal Forms: For annual appraisal, the HR will distribute the appraisal forms to the HOD for further distribution to the concerned appraisers. †¢Self-Documentation: At the start of the appraisal process, every assessee will fill a self-documentation form and give it to the concerned Appraiser. Appraisal by Assessor: the Appraiser first assessor) will perform the assessment upon receiving the self Appraisal Form from the assessee and forward the performance appraisal form to the reviewer (second assessor). The forms to be used for appraisal is as given in the table below: Sl noTitle of the formUsed for appraisal of 1Self Documentation form – technicalAll technical Associates below HOD Level 2Self Documentation form – Non technicalAll non- technical Associates below HOD Level 3Performance Appraisal Form (PL/PM)All associates at designer and above level but below HOD Performance Appraisal Form (Team members)All Associates at Team member (Manager/asst manager) level 5Performance Appraisal Form (Non – Technical)All Associates below HOD Level in non- technical Dept The level of the associate to be appraised in areas other than technical is as per the policy Guidelines . †¢Appraisal by second Assessor: The reviewer (second Assessor) will review the assessment upon receiving the performance appraisal form from the appraiser (first assessor). During annual appraisal, the first/ second assessor will give the performance rating based on joint assessment. Acceptance of Appraisal: The appraiser (first assessor) will discuss the assessment results with the assessee. If the assessee agrees to the assessment, then the assessee and the con cerned appraiser (first assessor) will sign on the performance appraisal form and the form will be forwarded to the second assessor/ – HOD for final authorization. In case of conflict, the appraisal form will be referred to the concerned reviewer (second assessor). The second assessor will be responsible for further action on the same. For all cases of conflict and where no second assessor exists, concerned HODs will act as the second assessor. The appraisal form, complete in all respects is received by HR form the respective head of the department. †¢Follow-up of Appraisal: The HOD (HR) will issue the revised salary/ promotion letters through reporting managers to the assesses based on the performance Appraisal form and discussions with the concerned head of the department. HR informs the revised salary/ promotion a detail of an assessee to finance for processing the same by updating the Associate database. Appraisal Records: the HOD (HR) will maintain the performance appraisal records in the personal file of each associate. APPRAISAL FORMAT: SELF DOCUMENT FORM: †¢The self-document form mainly includes all those contents, which are needed for the evaluation of performance appraisal. †¢The employees through the online facility fill this document form. †¢This includes the general information like the associate id, name, designation, department, role/level, qualification, and date of joining, location, and relevant experience. †¢This form also includes the assessee remarks that have evaluated the form. The various areas like the employees achievement, area where the employee have not performed up to the expectation, assessee’s strengths, areas of improvement are also included. These areas are evaluated both by the Assessee, Assessor 1 and Assessor 2. †¢The training programs attended and which the employee would like to attend is also included. †¢The career aspiration of the employee is also a part of the self-document form . GENERAL INSTRUCTIONS FORTECHNICAL ASSOCIATES The Self-documentation form should be complete in all respects. 1. What do you see as your major achievements for the period under review? . What Factor(s) enabled you in your achievement? 3. Constraints, which affected your overall performance. List your own efforts to exploit the opport unities and overcome the difficulties? (Include your strategies and tactics) 4. Your initiatives and contributions to the organization during the review period e. g. Cost savings, revenues, profits, technology enhancements, process improvements etc 5. Project related data for the periodic review, which includes name of the project, role played by you in each of the project and number of hours put in. 6. What have you gained from the training programmes you have attended and where you have applied the learning? 7. Your key result areas for next review period. One of the key result areas should be for self-development. GENERAL INSURANCE FOR NON TECHNICAL ASSOCIATES The Self-documentation form should be complete in all respects. I. What do you see as your major achievements for the period under review? II. What Factor(s) enabled you in your achievement? III. Constraints, which affected your overall performance. List your own efforts to exploit the opportunities and overcome the difficulties? Include your strategies and tactics) IV. Your initiatives and contributions to the organization during the review period e. g. Cost savings, revenues, profits, technology enhancements, process improvements etc V. What have you gained from the training programmes you have attended and where you have applied the learning? VI. Your key result areas for next review period. One of the key result areas s hould be for self-development. CRITERIA OF APRRAISAL RELATED AREAS Task related areas: Achievement of results Output of work Quality of work Quality system Conceptual skills: Total perspective Integrated skills Proactive skills Analytical and Planning skills Human skills Leadership Ability to inspire and motivate Interpersonal relationship Tact and cooperation Training and development of subordinates Communication Resolution of conflict Functional skills: Job knowledge Planning and organizing Decision-making Personality attributes: Openness Empathy and sensitivity Integrity (intellectual and moral) Flexibility/Adaptability/Positive outlook Perseverance Creativity/Innovativeness Capacity to withstand stress Discipline Dependability Loyalty and Commitment Self-confidence Appearance and Bearing. CHAPTER-4 DATA ANALYSIS INFERENCES Section -I : Regarding Setting Goals 1. Project goals are different from functional goals a)Strongly agree b) agree c) strongly disagree d) disagree TABLE 2. 1 OptionsNo of respondentsWeightsTotal score Strongly agree9218 Agree61161 Strongly disagree7-2-14 Disagree23-1-23 GRAPH 2. 1 Inference:Majority of the respondents opined that project goals and functional goals are one and the same with a mean of 0. 42. 2. If I can perform consistently it will see me in higher position sooner than later a) Strongly agree b) agree c) strongly disagree d) disagree TABLE 2. OptionsNo of respondentsweightsTotal score Strongly agree22+244 Agree54+154 Strongly disagree12-2-24 Disagree12-1-12 GRAPH 2. 2 Inference: Majority of the respondents are agreeing that they can expect themselves in higher position if they perform consistently with a weighted average of 0. 62. 3. My job presents scope for using my innovating skills in making my Decisions a) Strongly agree b) agree c) str ongly disagree d) disagree TABLE 2. 3 OptionsNo of respondentsweightsTotal score Strongly agree22+244 Agree13+113 Strongly disagree11-2-22 Disagree51-1-51 GRAPH 2. 3 Inference: Majority of the respondents opined their job does not showing present scope for using their innovating skills in making decisions with a mean of 0. 16. 4. Percent of target matching with goals in 2008 – 09 a) 80%-100% b) 60%-80% c) 40%-60% d) 20%-40% TABLE 2. 4 OpinionNo of respondentsValue in percentage 80%-100%3333% 60%-80%2929% 40%-60%3131% 20%-40%77% GRAPH 2. 4 Inference: 33% of respondents 80%-100%, 31% of respondents 40%-60%, 29% of respondents 60%-80% and 7% of respondents 20%-40%. The analysis shows that only few employees can meet their target on time. Section B: About the role of superior 5. I don’t hesitate to discuss any of my personal problems with my Superior a) Strongly agree b) agree c) strongly disagree d) disagree TABLE 2. 5 OptionsNo of respondentsweightsTotal score Strongly agree14+228 Agree61+161 Strongly disagree5-2-10 Disagree20-1-20 GRAPH 2. 5 Inference: Majority of the respondents agree that they do not hesitate to discuss their personal problems with their superior with a weighted score of 0. 6. 6. My superior acknowledging and contributing to set the goals a) Strongly agree b) agree c) strongly disagree d) disagree TABLE 2. Options No of respondentsweightsTotal score Strongly agree9+218 Agree 77+177 Strongly disagree5-2-10 Disagree 9-1-9 GRAPH 2. 6 Inference :Majority of the respondents agree that their superiors acknowledge and contribute to set their goals with a weighted average of 0. 76. 7. My immediate superior frequently motivates me a) Strongly agree b) agree c) strongly disagree d) disagree TABLE 2. 7 Options No of respondentsweightsTotal score Strongly agree15+230 Agree 67+167 Strongly disagree6-2-12 Disagree 12-1-12 GRAPH 2. 7 Inference: Most of the respondents agree that their immediate superior frequently otivates them with a mean of 0. 73. 8. I want my appraisal to be a) Confidential b) open TABLE 2. 8 OpinionNo of respondentsValue in percentage Confidential6666% Open3434% Total100100 GRAPH 2. 8 Inference: 66% of employees desire that their Performance Appraisal must be confidential and remaining 34% accept it to be open. 9. My interpersonal team relationship with peer, superiors and subordinates a) Very good b) good c) adequate d) inadequate TABLE 2. 9 OptionsNo of respondentsweightsTotal score Strongly agree29+258 Agree59+159 Strongly disagree12-2-24 Disagree0-10 GRAPH 2. 9 Inference: Majority of the respondents have a positive opinion towards the interpersonal team relationship with peer, superiors and sub- ordinates is good with a mean of 0. 93 . 10. I feel proud and motivated when my superior appreciates my work a) Strongly agree b) agree c) strongly disagree d) disagree TABLE 2. 10 OptionsNo of respondentsweightsTotal score Strongly agree35+242 Agree57+162 Strongly disagree4-2-18 Disagree4-1-8 GRAPH 2. 10 Inference: Majority of the respondents feel proud and get motivated when their superior appreciates their work with weighted average of 1. 15. Section c: feedback and evaluation: 1. Iam open to the feedback given by the appraiser a) Always b) sometimes c) rarely TABLE 2. 11 OpinionNo of respondentsValue in percentage Always6464% Some times3030% Rarely66% GRAPH 2. 11 Inference: 64% of the respondents always, 30% of the respondents sometimes, 6% of the respondents rarely. Majority of the respondents are open to their feedback â€Å"always†. 12. Employee opinion about frequency of appraisal system a) Annually b) half-yearly c) quarterly TABLE 2. 12 OpinionNo of respondentsValue in percentage Annually2828% Half-yearly5858% Quarterly1414% GRAPH 2. 12 Inference: 8% of the respondent’s half-yearly. 28% of the respondents annually, 14% of the respondents quarterly. The analyst gives a clear picture that most of the associates like to get appraisal â€Å"half-yearly†. 13. Opinion on performance linked promotional policy a) Strongly agree b) agree c) strongly disagree d) disagree TABLE 2. 13 OptionsNo of respondentsweightsTotal score Strongly agree21+242 Agree62+162 Strongly disagree9-2-18 Disagree8-1-8 GRAPH 2. 13 Inference: Majority of the respondents agree that the promotions are based on the rating derived from performance appraisal with weighted average of 0. 8. 14. The HRD department follows up the training needs Identified using appraisal seriously a) Strongly agree b) agree c) strongly disagree d) disagree TABLE 2. 14 OptionsNo of respondentsweightsTotal score Strongly agree7+214 Agree21+121 Strongly disagree18-2-36 Disagree54-1 -54 GRAPH 2. 14 Inference: Majority of the respondents are moderately agreed that the HRD dept follows the training needs identify the appraisal with a mean of 0. 55. 15. According to my opinion the following system is useful for our organization a) Team appraisal b) 360 degree appraisal c) self appraisal TABLE 2. 15 OpinionNo of respondentsValue in percentage Team appraisal2929% 360 degree appraisal3636% Self appraisal3535% GRAPH 2. 15 Inference: 36% of respondents 360 degree appraisal, 35 % of the respondents self appraisal , 29% of the respondents team appraisal, majority of the respondents opined that the 360 degree appraisal is suitable for their organization. 16. Team work is considered as a factor in appraising employee performance a) Strongly agree b) agree c) strongly disagree d) disagree TABLE 2. 16 OptionsNo of respondentsweightsTotal score Strongly agree24+248 Agree58+158 Strongly disagree8-2-16 Disagree10-1 10 GRAPH 2. 16 Inference: Most of the respondents agree that team work is considered as a factor in appraising their employee performance with a mean of 0. 8. 17. My opinion on present rating system a) Very good b) good c) fair d) poor TABLE 2. 17 OptionsNo of respondentsWeightsTotal score Very good13339 Good562112 Fair18118 Poor13-1-13 GRAPH 2. 17 Inference: Most of the responden ts are opined that their present rating system is good with a weight age score of 1. 56 Section D: organization effectiveness: 18. At BFL the appraisal system provides for an open discussion between the Appraiser and appraise ) Strongly agree b) agree c) strongly disagree d) disagree TABLE 2. 18 OptionsNo of respondentsweightsTotal score Strongly agree18+236 Agree67+167 Strongly disagree8-2-14 Disagree7-1 -7 GRAPH 2. 18 Inference: Majority of the respondents are agree that at BFL the appraisal system provides for a open discussion between the appraiser and appraise with a mean of 0. 82. 19. The appraisal system at BFL given each appraise an idea of what is expected Of him next year a) Very true b) true c) partly true d) not true TABLE 2. 19 OptionsNo of respondentsweightsTotal score Very true15345 True532106 Partly true22122 Not true10-1-10 GRAPH 2. 19 Inference: Majority of the respondents opined that A. S at BFL given each appraise an idea of what is expected of him next year with a weighted average of 1. 63 20. Up to what extent do the higher authority implement the Suggestions provide By employee a) All times b) some times c) none TABLE 2. 20 OpinionNo of respondentsValue in percentage All times1818 Some times6767 None1515 GRAPH 2. 20 Inference: 67% of the respondents sometimes, 18% of the respondents all times, 15% of the respondents none. Majority of the respondents agreeing that the higher authority implement the suggestion provide by employee â€Å"sometimes†. 21. Management support to improve the job performance a) strongly agree b) agree c) strongly disagree d) disagree TABLE 2. 21 OptionsNo of respondentsWeightsTotal score Strongly agree20+240 Agree67+167 Strongly disagree5-2-10 Disagree8-1 -8 GRAPH 2. 21 Inference: Majority of the respondents are agree that the management supports to improve their job performance of employees with a mean of 0. 89. 22. Performance appraisal helps me to know my strengths and weakness after the Appraisal ) Strongly agree b) agree c) strongly disagree d) disagree TABLE 2. 22 OptionsNo of respondentsweightsTotal score Strongly agree17+234 Agree61+161 Strongly disagree11-2-22 Disagree11-1 -11 GRAPH 2. 22 Inference: Majority of the respondents opined performance appraisal helps to know their strengths and weakness after the appraisal with a mean of 0. 62. 23. The performance app raisal is based on the real records and facts but not on Impressions a) Strongly agree b) agree c) strongly disagree d) disagree TABLE 2. 23 OptionsNo of respondentsweightsTotal score Strongly agree14+228 Agree66+166 Strongly disagree9-2-18 Disagree11-1-11 GRAPH 2. 23 Inference: Most of the respondents agree that performance appraisal is based on the real records and facts but not an impressions with a weighted of 0. 65. 24. Iam paid worth my contribution a) Strongly agree b) agree c) strongly disagree d) disagree TABLE 2. 24 OptionsNo of respondentsweightsTotal score Strongly agree10+220 Agree66+166 Strongly disagree13-2-26 Disagree11-1-11 GRAPH 2. 24 Inference: Most of the respondents are moderately accepting they paid worth their contribution with a weighted average of 0. 49. CHAPTER-6 Findings, Suggestions Conclusion Findings 1 Majority of the respondents opined that project goals and functional goals are one and the same with a mean of 0. 42. 2. Majority of the respondents are agree that they can expect themselves in higher position if they perform consistently with a weighted average of 0. 62. 3. Majority of the respondents opined their job does not showing present scope for using their innovating skills in making decisions with a mean of 0. 16. 4. 33% of respondents 80%-100%, 31% of respondents 40%-60%, 29% of respondents 60%-80% and 7% of respondents 20%-40%. The analysis shows that only few employees can meet their target on time. 5. Majority of the respondents agree that they do not hesitate to discuss their personal problems with their superior with a weighted score of 0. 6. 6. Majority of the respondents agree that their superiors acknowledge and contribute to set their goals with a weighted average of 0. 76. 7. Most of the respondents agree that their immediate superior frequently motivates them with a mean of 0. 73. 8. 66% of employees desire that their Performance Appraisal must be confidential and remaining 34% accept it to be open. . Majority of the respondents have a positive opinion towards the interpersonal team relationship with peer, superiors and sub- ordinates is good with a mean of 0. 93 . 10. Majority of the respondents feels proud and get motivated when their superior appreciates their work with weighted average of 1. 15. 11. 64% of the respondents always, 30% of the respondents sometimes, 6% of the respondents rarely. Majority of the respondents are open to their feedback â€Å"always†. 12. 58% of the respondent’s half-yearly. 28% of the respondents annually, 14% of the respondents quarterly. The analyst gives a clear picture that most of the associates like to get appraisal â€Å"half-yearly†. 13. Majority of the respondents agree that the promotions are based on the rating derived from performance appraisal with weighted average of 0. 78. 14. Majority of the respondents are moderately agree that the HRD dept follows the training needs identify the appraisal with a mean of 0. 55. 15. 36% of respondents 360 degree appraisal, 35 % of the respondents self appraisal, 29% of the respondents team appraisal, majority of the respondents opined that the 360 degree appraisal is suitable for their organisation. 6. Most of the respondents agree that team work is considered as a factor in appraising their employee performance with a mean of 0. 8. 17. Most of the respondents are opined that their present rating system is good with a weight avg score of 1. 56 18. Majority of the respondents is agree that at BFL the appraisal system provides for an open discussion between the app raiser and appraise with a mean of 0. 82. 19. Majority of the respondents opined that A. S at BFL given each appraise an idea of what is expected of him next year with a weighted average of 1. 3. 20. 67% of the respondents sometimes, 18% of the respondents all times, 15% of the respondents none. Majority of the respondents agreeing that the higher authority implement the suggestion provide by employee â€Å"sometimes†. 21. Majority of the respondents are agreeing that the management supports to improve their job performance of employees with a mean of 0. 89. 22. Majority of the respondents opined performance appraisal helps to know their strengths and weakness after the appraisal with a mean of 0. 62. 23. Most of the respondents agree that performance appraisal is based on the real records and facts but not an impressions with a weighted of 0. 65. 24. Most of the respondents are moderately accepting they paid worth their contribution with a weighted average of 0. 49. SUGGESTIONS 1. Implementation of innovative ideas in decision making may be encouraged by the management. 2. The management may design the performance linked promotions. 3. The involvement of HRD department may be considered by management in assessing the training needs of employees based performance appraisal system. 4. The superiors should be more approachable when the employees come to them with improvement technique. On the whole the Performance Appraisal system at Bajaj Finserv Limited is Satisfactory. There are few areas which need due attention. The rating must be based purely on the performance. CONCLUSION: The conclusions that emerged from the study of Performance Appraisal System at Bajaj Finserv Limited are that the sampled associates prefer that some change should be brought down in the existing system. The associates feel that the best source of motivation is encouragement by superiors. A 360-degree appraisal system has been recommended by some of the associates. Training needs to be identified based on the ratings and effective training programs must be conducted where in the associates can fulfill self development needs as well as organizational needs. LIMITATION OF THE STUDY: ?Options expressed by the employee in the questionnaire may not be very genuine. ?What the associates actually feel may not be truly expressed and hence there is the conclusion drawn from them need not apply to the whole organization. Could reach to a limited number of documents of different insurance companies in regard to the management and other policies and resultant figures so as to identify the exact cause of their lag in performance. ?Non-Proficiency in technical aspects of insurance companies might have hindered the best analysis of the findings. . Bibliography WEBSITES: www. bajajfinserv. com www. answers. com www. performanceappraisal. com www. google. com www. yahoo. com NEWSPAPER S AND MAGAZINE: The Hindu Personnel management Business today ICFAI magazines BOOKS: Personnel Management – Edwin Flippo Human Resources and Personnel Management-k. Ashwathappa Essential of Human Resource Management-P. SubbaRao Personnel Management-C. Memoria Performance Management and Coaching-Prem Chadda Appendices Questionnaire Section -I : Regarding Setting Goals 1. Project goals are different from functional goals a)Strongly agree b) agree c) strongly disagree d) disagree 2. If I can perform consistently it will see me in higher position sooner than later a) Strongly agree b) agree c) strongly disagree d) disagree 3. My job presents scope for using my innovating skills in making my Decisions ) Strongly agree b) agree c) strongly disagree d) disagree 4. Percent of target matching with goals in 2007 – 08 a) 80%-100% b) 60%-80% c) 40%-60% d) 20%-40% Section-II: About the role of Superior 5. I don’t hesitate to discuss any of my personal problems with my Superior a) Strongly agree b) agree c) strongly disagree d) disagree 6. My superior acknowledging and contributing to set the goals a) Strongly agree b) agree c) strongly disagree d) disagree 7. My immediate superior frequently motivates me a) Strongly agree b) agree c) strongly disagree d) disagree 8. I want my appraisal to be a) Confidential b) open 9. My interpersonal team relationship with peer, superiors and subordinates a) Very good b) good c) adequate d) inadequate 10. I feel proud and motivated when my superior appreciates my work a) Strongly agree b) agree c) strongly disagree d) disagree 11. Iam open to the feedback given by the appraiser a) Always b) sometimes c) rarely Section-III: Regarding Feedback and Evaluation 11. Iam open to the feedback given by the appraiser a) Always b) sometimes c) rarely 12. Employee opinion about frequency of appraisal system ) Annually b) half-yearly c) quarterly 13. Opinion on performance linked promotional policy a) Strongly agree b) agree c) strongly disagree d) disagree 14. The HRD department follows up the training needs Identified using appraisal seriously a) Strongly agree b) agree c) strongly disagree 15. According to my opinion the following system is useful for our organization a) Team appraisal b) 360 degree appraisal c) self app raisal 16. Team work is considered as a factor in appraising employee performance a) Strongly agree b) agree c) strongly disagree d) disagree 17. My opinion on present rating system a) Very good b) good c) fair d) poor Section –IV organization effectiveness 18. At BFL the appraisal system provides for an open discussion between the Appraiser and appraise a) Strongly agree b) agree c) strongly disagree d) disagree 19. The appraisal system at BFL given each appraise an idea of what is expected Of him next year a) Very true b) true c) partly true d) not true 20. Up to what extent do the higher authority implement the Suggestions provide By employee a) All times b) some times c) none 1. Management support to improve the job performance a) Strongly agree b) agree c) strongly disagree d) disagree .22. Performance appraisal helps me to know my strengths and weakness after the Appraisal a) Strongly agree b) agree c) strongly disagree d) disagree 23. The performance appraisal is based on the real records and facts but not on Impressions a) Strongly agree b) agree c) strongly disagree d) disagree 24. Iam paid worth my contributio n a) Strongly agree b) agree c) strongly disagree d) disagree How to cite Performance Appraisal System, Essay examples

Tuesday, May 5, 2020

Analysis of International Law Essay Example For Students

Analysis of International Law Essay International law is the body of legal rules that apply between sovereign states and such other entities as have been grantedinternational personality (status acknowledged by the international community). The rules of international law are of a normativecharacter, that is, they prescribe towards conduct, and are potentially designed for authoritative interpretation by an international judicial authority and by being capable of enforcement by the application of external sanctions. The International Court of Justice is the principal judicial organ of the United Nations, which succeeded the Permanent Court of International Justice after WorldWar II. Article 92 of the charter of the United Nations states:The International Court of justice shall be the principal judicial organ of the United nations. It shall function in accordance with the annexed Statute, which is based upon the Statute of the Permanent court of International Justice and forms an integral part of The commands of internat ional law must be those that the states impose upon themselves, as states must give consent to thecommands that they will follow. It is a direct expression of raison detat, the interests of the state, and aims to serve the state, aswell as protect the state by giving its rights and duties. This is done through treaties and other consensual engagements which areThe case-law of the ICJ is an important aspect of the UNs contribution to the development of international law. Its judgementsand advisory opinions permeates into the international legal community not only through its decisions as such but through the widerimplications of its methodology and reasoning. The successful resolution of the border dispute between Burkina Faso and Mali in the 1986 Frontier Dispute case illustrates the utility of judicial decision as a means of settlement in territorial disputes. The case was submitted to a Chamber of the ICJpursuant to a special agreement concluded by the parties in 1983. In December 1985, while written submissions were being prepared, hostilities broke out in the disputed area. A cease-fire was agreed, and the Chamber directed the continued observance of the cease-fire, the withdrawal of troops within twenty days, and the avoidance of actions tending to aggravate the dispute or prejudice its eventual resolution. Both Presidents publicly welcomed the judgement and indicated their intention to comply with it. In the Fisheries Jurisdiction case (United Kingdom v. Iceland, 1974) the ICJ contributed to the firm establishment in law of the idea that mankind needs to conserve the living resources of the sea and must respect these resources. The Court observed:It is one of the advances in maritime international law, resulting from the intensification of fishing, that the former laissez-faire treatment of the living resources of the sea in the high seas has been replaced by a recognition of a duty to have due regard of the rights of other States and the needs of conservation for the benefit of all. Consequently, both parties have the obligation to keep inder review the fishery resources in the disputed waters and to examine together, in the light of scientific and other available information, the measures required for the conservation and development, and equitable exploitation, of these resources, taking into account any international agreement in force between them, such as the North-East Atla ntic Fisheries Convention of 24 January 1959, as well as such other agreements as may be reached in the matter in the The Court also held that the concept of preferential rights in fisheries is not static. This is not to say that the preferential rights of a coastal State in a special situation are a static concept, in the sense that the degree of the coastal States preference is to be considered as for ever at some given moment. On the contrary, the preferential rights are a function of the exceptional dependence of such a coastal State on the fisheries in adjacent waters and may, therefore, vary as the extent of that dependence changes. The Courts judgement on this case contributes to the development of the law of the sea by recognizing the concept of the preferential rights of a coastal state in the fisheries of the adjacent waters, particularly if that state is in a special situation with its population dependent on those fisheries. Moreover, the Court proceeds further to recogn ise that the law pertaining to fisheries must accept the primacy of the requirement of conservation based on scientific data. The exercise of preferential rights of the coastal state, as well as the hisoric rights of other states dependent on the same fishing grounds, have to be subject to the overriding consideration of proper conservation of the fishery resources for the benefit of all concerned. Some cases in which sanctions are threatened, however, see no actual implementation. The United States, for example, did not impose measures on those Latin American states that nationalized privately owned American property, despite legislation that authorizes the President to discontinue aid in the absence of adequate compensation. Enforcement measures are not the sole means of UN sanction. Skeptics of the coercive theory of international law note thatforceful sanctions through the United Nations are limited to situations involving threats to the peace, breaches of peace, and actsof aggressiion. In all other instances of noncompliance of international law, the charters own general provisions outlawing thethreat or use of force actually prevent forceful sanction. Those same skeptics regard this as an appropriate paradox in a decentralized state system of international politics. Nonetheless, other means of collective sanction through the UN involve diplomatic intervention and In 1967 the Security Council decided to isolate Southern Rhodesia (now Zimbabwe) for its policy of racial separation following its unilateral declaration of independence from Britain. As in other cases of economic sanctions, effectiveness in the Rhodesian situation was limited by the problems of achieving universal participation, and the res istance of national elites to external coercion. With respect to universal participation, even states usually sympathetic to Britains policy demonstrated weak compliance. Big Game EssayThe case-law of the ICJ is an important aspect of the UNs contribution to the development of international law. Its judgementsand advisory opinions permeates into the international legal community not only through its decisions as such but through the widerimplications of its methodology and reasoning. The successful resolution of the border dispute between Burkina Faso and Mali in the 1986 Frontier Dispute case illustrates the utility of judicial decision as a means of settlement in territorial disputes. The case was submitted to a Chamber of the ICJpursuant to a special agreement concluded by the parties in 1983. In December 1985, while written submissions were being prepared, hostilities broke out in the disputed area. A cease-fire was agreed, and the Chamber directed the continued observance of the cease-fire, the withdrawal of troops within twenty days, and the avoidance of actions tending to aggravate the dispute or prejudice its eventual resolution. Both Presidents publicly welcomed the judgement and indicated their intention to comply with it. In the Fisheries Jurisdiction case (United Kingdom v. Iceland, 1974) the ICJ contributed to the firm establishment in law of the idea that mankind needs to conserve the living resources of the sea and must respect these resources. The Court observed:It is one of the advances in maritime international law, resulting from the intensification of fishing, that the former laissez-faire treatment of the living resources of the sea in the high seas has been replaced by a recognition of a duty to have due regard of the rights of other States and the needs of conservation for the benefit of all. Consequently, both parties have the obligation to keep inder review the fishery resources in the disputed waters and to examine together, in the light of scientific and other available information, the measures required for the conservation and development, and equitable exploitation, of these resources, taking into account any international agreement in force between them, such as the North-East Atla ntic Fisheries Convention of 24 January 1959, as well as such other agreements as may be reached in the matter in the course of further negotiation. The Court also held that the concept of preferential rights in fisheries is not static. This is not to say that the preferential rights of a coastal State in a special situation are a static concept, in the sense that the degree of the coastal States preference is to be considered as for ever at some given moment. On the contrary, the preferential rights are a function of the exceptional dependence of such a coastal State on the fisheries in adjacent waters and may, therefore, vary as the extent of that dependence changes. The Courts judgement on this case contributes to the development of the law of the sea by recognizing the concept of the preferential rights of a coastal state in the fisheries of the adjacent waters, particularly if that state is in a special situation with its population dependent on those fisheries. Moreover, the Court proceeds further to recognise that the law pertaining to fisheries must accept the primacy of the requirement of conservation based on scientific data. The exercise of preferential rights of the coastal state, as well as the hisoric rights of other states dependent on the same fishing grounds, have to be subject to the overriding consideration of proper conservation of the fishery resources for the benefit of all concerned. Some cases in which sanctions are threatened, however, see no actual implementation. The United States, for example, did not impose measures on those Latin American states that nationalized privately owned American property, despite legislation that authorizes the President to discontinue aid in the absence of adequate compensation. Enforcement measures are not the sole means of UN sanction. Skeptics of the coercive theory of international law note thatforceful sanctions through the United Nations are limited to situations involving threats to the peace, breaches of peace, and actsof aggressiion. In all other instances of noncompliance of international law, the charters own general provisions outlawing thethreat or use of force actually prevent forceful sanction. Those same skeptics regard this as an appropriate paradox in a decentralized state system of international politics. Nonetheless, other means of collective sanction through the UN involve diplomatic intervention and economic sanctions. In 1967 the Security Council decided to isolate Southern Rhodesia (now Zimbabwe) for its policy of racial separation following its unilateral declaration of independence from Britain. As in other cases of economic sanctions, effectiveness in the Rhodesian situation was limited by the problems of achieving universal participation, and the resistance of national elites to external coercion. With respect to universal participation, even states usually sympathetic to Britains policy demonstrated weak compliance. The decentralization of sanctions remains one of the major weaknesses of international law. Although international bodiessometimes make decisions in the implementation of sanctions, member states must implement them. The states are the importers and exporters in the international system. They command industrial economies and the passage of goods across national boundaries. Furthermore, the UN is wholly dependent on its members on operating funds, so no matter what decisional authority its membersgive it, its ability to take action not only depends on its decision but also on means. Without the support, the wealth and the materialassistance of national governments, the UN is incapable of effective sanctions. The resistance of governments to a financially independent %0

Tuesday, March 31, 2020

Metropolis Part 2Scenes From A Memory(1999) by Dream Theater free essay sample

Its honestly been a while since my last Dream Theater album review. Well, now, we will be focusing on one of the most heartwrenching stories of all time. This story is about a man who falls asleep revisiting the past to when the love of his life died(which is unexplained). He then lets out his anger and sadness on other people whove seen this Fatal Tragedy and was the topic for many years. After therapy, he sets out to find the girl and finds a way to reach her again, by killing himself as well. They then, fall in love in the afterlife and do The Dance if Eternity to love a happily ever after. Great story and Dream Theater`s first of two concept albums. Touching story and one of the best that Ive heard in music if not, the best. The poetic lyrics that LaBrie pulls off almost flawlessly. We will write a custom essay sample on Metropolis Part 2:Scenes From A Memory(1999) by Dream Theater or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page The instrumentation is excellent as well fitting with the mood of the story at that point. Did I mention its in the style of a play? If you dont believe me then here, all of the tracks are labeled with a scene number and there are two separate acts in the play styled album. You will feel every but of emotion that they throw at you. This my favorite Dream Theater album for most of the reasons I mentioned above but theres one more thing, the instrumentals are completely crazy. Take a look at Overture 1928 and Dance of Eternity and tell me they arent going crazy on this album. A,little fun fact I`d like to throw out there is that I even have the full guitar tracks for the album(even though I have no idea how to play a guitar. I could still use a violin for it though). I cant imagine any Dream Theater fan not liking this masterpiece of an album. Then again, when is something liked by everyone? Never. The best Dream Theater album to date so far. I have to give it a 10/10. I am the Grim R eaper, signing off.

Saturday, March 7, 2020

Informative Essay Sample about Procrastination

Informative Essay Sample about Procrastination An informative essay is a well-known type of a paper that is used to evaluate the knowledge of students in schools and colleges, and its main task is giving the reader detailed information about the unknown subject. The informative essay should not have many unknown terms, and if they are used, their simple explanation should be given. The structure of the essay is standard the introduction, the main body, and the conclusion, where the main body should express the general history of the concept, historical event, person, or object, approaches to its study, and the importance of the described object. The topic of an informative essay sample should not cover too broad concepts, or, conversely, too narrow field of knowledge, and must be interesting for both the author and the reader. Before starting to work, the writer has to find reliable sources of information, properly study them and emphasize the main points that should be mentioned in the essay. This type of paper involves the pre sentation of the main facts of the topic without additional analysis and personal conclusions – only information for the reader. To clearly understand the structure and writing features of the essay, one could consider the informative essay example given below. ‘The Procrastination’ Essay Sample The habit of postponing important cases to the last moment often becomes a huge problem for people since it affects the quality of work, financial situation, and personal life. One can hear the common myth that the prevalence of the Internet, TV, and electronic devices exacerbates this problem even more than decades ago. Moreover, it is known that people under pressure work better and faster, that makes procrastination a good thing, but numerous studies show the other side of this habit, and scientists include it in the list of mental diseases. In this regard, one should mention that the main reason why people postpone everything until the last moment is not hindering factors, laziness, or inability to manage time but psycho-emotional problems of a person. In simple words, procrastination is a phenomenon of people choosing quick and less critical tasks to perform instead of significant ones that take a longer time to complete because they want to get results faster and self-assert them. In other words, a person is not just lazy or does not want to do the necessary task. Instead, he/she is subconsciously afraid to proceed to the work realization because of its importance or scale. Moreover, scientists noted that in any country and at any time there are 20% of people who are marked as chronic procrastinators or procs. The main problem of procs is that they cannot emotionally overstep themselves if they are faced with a difficult task and postpone it until the deadline or even after it. Procrastination is a phenomenon that is mistakenly attributed to the problems of modernity, but its existence was noted centuries ago, in the times of ancient Greece. One of the evidence of this statement is the words that were written at 800 BC by the Gre ek poet Hesiod, who said: â€Å"Put your work off till tomorrow and the day after.† Similar trends can be noted in various books and films of the past, and that is why blaming modern technologies for the intensification of procrastination is incorrect. At the same time, the scientists note three main traits that are inherent for chronic procrastinators, for instance, they usually suffer from their inaction, postpone difficult tasks because of their emotions, and do not learn from past mistakes. The first feature is expressed in the fact that postponing important tasks, the procrastinators are aware of the consequences of their actions and feel fear, anxiety, or torment of conscience but still do not proceed to the task. The second trait is expressed in the fact that people feel insecure in their desire to complete a task and explain this by a bad mood. Therefore, they postpone it in the hope that when the mood improves, they are able to return to the task. Consequently, the rapidly approaching deadline makes the person more stressed and reduces the ability to resist emotions that lead to the worse mood and another postponement. The third feature is that despite the experience gained in past cases of procrastination, people do not l earn to avoid unpleasant consequences but only feel more stress caused by understanding future complications. Thus, these manifestations are, at the same time, causes and consequences of procrastination and are associated primarily with the emotional problems of the person. While for ordinary people procrastination remains a reason for jokes, scientists have approached this issue with all responsibility having conducted diverse researches on the topic. One of the most effective methods was empirical tests on groups of volunteers, which clearly showed manifestations of procrastination associated with various external factors. The good example of the study was published in Psychological Science when one group of students was told that at the end of the lesson they have to write unimportant and fun math test, and another group thought that the result of this test would seriously influence their further education. The time before the test could be used for preparation or entertainment. As a result, the second group of chronic procrastinators deferred studying knowing that the test results are significant. The experiment clearly showed that procrastination is associated with the control of emotions and not time. Another method that scientists tried to apply to research this issue is neuropsychology. Since some parts of the frontal lobe of the brain are responsible for human self-control, the study of the connection between procrastination and reactions in this part of the brain is expected to conduct. Nevertheless, the outcomes of the study were unexpected since chronic procrastinators had powerful connections with all the parts that are responsible for the different manifestation of self-control. These results most likely connect with the fact that the people themselves explained their feelings, so they were aware of their behavior. However, the research has led to the development of the methods that procrastinators can effectively use to solve their problem. First of all, it is worth noting once again that the influence can and should be exerted primarily by controlling emotions, but not thorough concentration on time-management skills. It is useful to observe one’s personal reaction to procrastination and analyze one to overcome the problem. For someone, it is a problem of self-control, for another person, it is the importance of the task or its complexity. In the first case, it may be useful to limit all distractions, such as calls, TV, or the Internet, but without the proper attitude for overcoming procrastination, this method does not give a positive result. Another effective way is dividing a massive task into several small ones with the establishment of personal deadlines for their implementation or a rewarding for early delivery of work instead of punishment after the deadline. In addition, dealing with procrastination may require seeing a therapist who will help to overcome the emotional barrier and realize the importance of completing tasks on time for the person due to his or her specific problems. Therefore, it can be noted that the study of procrastination on the part of science has led to the realization that this phenomenon can be a serious problem that threatens the mental and physical health of a person. In spite of this, not every postponing is a manifestation of procrastination, as well as not every person is a chronic procrastinator, but almost every person experiences this phenomenon at least once in the lifetime. In addition, the researches made it possible to understand the origins of this problem and, consequently, the ways of its resolving. Procrastination is primarily a problem of a person’s perception and the ability to overcome one’s emotional barriers, while the correct approach to solving this problem and therapy if needed could give fast positive results. Post-writing Tips This example of an informative essay includes the main parts that are necessary for writing academic work that includes an introduction with a clearly formulated thesis, the main body with precise explanations and statistical data, and a conclusion that summarizes all the information proposed in the essay. The informative essay sample presented above does not contain generalizations or personal interpretations of the author but only solid facts that explain the essence of the chosen topic to the reader. The conclusion of the essay does not contain new information or a personal response of the author but briefly summarizes the main ideas. In order to create an informative essay, remember that the vocabulary should include simple definitions and emotionally neutral terms. At the same time, one can make an exception and use direct quotations, so that the reader can easily get acquainted with the presented information. Writing an informative essay does not require analysis or synthesis of the obtained data since the main task of the author is to explain the main issues of the chosen topic briefly and clearly, revealing its essence to an uninformed reader. We hope that the tips and example of the essay are useful and will facilitate the task of writing this type of academic work. References Jaffe, Eric. â€Å"Why Wait? The Science Behind Procrastination.† Association for Psychological Science, 2013, https://www.psychologicalscience.org/observer/why-wait-the-science-behind-procrastination Council, Forbes Coaches. â€Å"10 Ways To Beat Procrastination And Get Things Done.† Forbes, Forbes Magazine, 22 Mar. 2018, https://www.forbes.com/sites/forbescoachescouncil/2018/03/22/10-ways-to-beat-procrastination-and-get-things-done/#2d6307f02902 Murphy, Heather. â€Å"What We Finally Got Around to Learning at the Procrastination Research Conference.† The New York Times, The New York Times, 21 July 2017, https://www.nytimes.com/2017/07/21/science/procrastination-research-conference.html Herrera, Tim. â€Å"Why Your Brain Tricks You Into Doing Less Important Tasks.† The New York Times, The New York Times, 9 July 2018, https://www.nytimes.com/2018/07/09/smarter-living/eisenhower-box-productivity-tips.html

Thursday, February 20, 2020

Law and ethics Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Law and ethics - Essay Example The article discusses the regulations of 49 countries in order to determine how they affect equity issuance. The issue is very relevant as, according to Mahoney, there is a â€Å"promoter’s problem† occurs, when the sellers can’t provide guarantees that the equities they sell are reliable (Mahoney, 1995). Thus, the paper analyses the laws regulating the stock market propositions in each state and researches the connection between these rules and the ways stock markets use to increase profits. â€Å"We analyze the specific provisions in securities laws governing initial public offerings in each country, examine the relationship between these provisions and various measures of stock market development, and interpret the evidence in light of the available theories of securities laws† (LaPorta et al, 2004). Also the article provides the results interpretations made in accordance with corresponding theories of security regulation (LaPorta et al, 2004). First, t he authors represent three assumptions as for the influence the regulation may have on the stock market. The conclusions were strongly supported by hypotheses. The authors define three hypotheses: the first states that market regulation is not needed. This hypothesis is supported by Coase (1960) and Stigle (1964). These experts pay attention to the fact of information disclosure that is provoked by security regulation â€Å"Issuers of securities have an incentive to disclose all available information to obtain higher prices simply because failure to disclose would cause investors to assume the worst† (LaPorta et al, 2004). At the same time the next two hypotheses state that market needs regulation as the investors should be protected from cheating. Stock investments usually prescribes high expenses and if the investors are cheated, loses they bear are too serious. Thus, the government should issue special security laws in order to regulate the climate in the stock markets. â €Å"Both reputations and contract and tort law are insufficient to keep promoters from cheating investors because the payoff from cheating is too high and because private tort and contract litigation is too expensive and unpredictable to serve as a deterrent. To reduce the enforcement costs and opportunistic behavior, the government can introduce a securities law that specifies the contracting framework. The two alternative hypotheses differ in what kind of government intervention would be optimal within such a framework† (LaPorta et al, 2004). Therefore, the most important conclusion made by the authors of the article is that stock markets really can’t do without regulation as it makes much for their prosperity. Secondly, the results show that security regulation means much as it help conclude contracts instead of preventing people from concluding them. Precisely, it was revealed that many aspects of public administration do not play the important role. On the contrar y the regulation usually helps investors recuperate the expenses predominantly in the large markets. Thus, the conclusion was made that the larger the market is, the more thorough monitoring it demands (Barth, Caprio, and Levine, 2003). The authors also emphasize the importance of monitoring the disagreements that occur between the stockholders and investors. It is really essential for the market development. Special attention should be paid also to the change in regulation that would promote economic development and eliminate the gap between the states